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In , the crown granted Jews an official charter of protection, thus further facilitating the development of the Marrano community.

The ex-Marranos and their descendants continued to be the dominant element in British Jewry until the 19th century. In Amsterdam , the Marranos did not arrive until around , some 11 years after the Union of Utrecht and the birth of the United Provinces of the Netherlands as a Protestant state. Here, too, they had to wait until before Jewish settlement was officially authorized, but the Marranos in Amsterdam differed from those in other Protestant countries in that they openly practiced Judaism almost from the moment of their arrival.

Thanks to the Marranos, Amsterdam became one of the greatest Jewish centers in the world in the 17th century; it had some of the finest academies and produced some of the greatest Jewish thinkers. Marranos from Holland were among the first settlers in Surinam and Curacao , where a substantial Sephardi community came into being after The Catholic lands outside the control of Spain and Portugal did not offer as secure a haven as the Ottoman Empire or the Protestant countries, but they had the advantage of being outside the orbit of the peninsular Inquisitions.

At the same time, these areas were not without their inherent dangers, in the form of envy or rooted prejudice on the part of the local population, pressures from the Spanish and Portuguese Inquisitions upon the local authorities, and even the possibility of persecution galvanized by local initiative, and, in the case of the Papal States, an indigenous Inquisition.

As a result, the existence of many of these Marrano communities, even if unclouded and prosperous for a time, was seldom free from molestation. They even received a guarantee that if accused of apostasy they would be subject only to papal authority. But Paul IV �59 , the voice of the Counter-Reformation , dealt them an irreparable blow when he withdrew all protection previously given the Marranos and initiated a fierce persecution against them.

As a result of the anti-Marrano campaign, 25 Jews were burned alive in the spring of , 26 others were condemned to the galleys, and 30 more who had been arrested were liberated only after they had paid a substantial bribe.

Thanks to the intervention of the Marrano patroness, Gracia Mendes Nasi, the sultan at Constantinople secured the release of all Marranos who were his subjects. A document of indicates that there were some Marranos among the Spanish and Portuguese merchants in Florence who traded on a large scale with Spain and her colonies. In Ferrara, under the house of Este, the Marranos formed a large and thriving community by the middle of the 16th century, one of the most notable in their entire Diaspora.

The dukes protected them until , when Duke Alfonso II, bowing to ecclesiastical pressure, allowed many of them to be arrested. Three were eventually sent to Rome to be burned at the stake in February Marranos settled in Venice in the 15th and early 16th centuries but were subjected to decrees of expulsion in and again in Thereafter the city policy began to change.

Venice not only welcomed Marranos but kept the Inquisition at bay. Theologians like Paolo Sarpi even claimed that the Jews were outside the jurisdiction of the Inquisition because they had been baptized by force. Equally fortunate was the situation in the grand duchy of Tuscany. To woo the Marranos to Pisa and Leghorn , Ferdinand II issued a charter in granting them protection against harassment in matters of faith.

As it was in decline at the time, Pisa did not attract many Marranos, but Leghorn did: the community there thrived and by the end of the 18th century its population approached 5, Emmanuel Philbert granted special privileges to induce Jews to settle in the duchy of Savoy, intending mainly to settle Marranos from Spain and Portugal in Nice to develop the city into a central trading port with the East.

The pressure of Spain led to the rescinding of the privilege and, on Nov. This decree was probably not put into effect until when Charles Emmanuel I ordered the expulsion of all Portuguese Jews from the duchy.

In France the Marranos had to maintain some semblance of Catholicism for more than two centuries, but they were seldom molested in their secret practice of Judaism. In the large settlements they lived in their own quarters, had their own burial grounds, developed their own schools and communal institutions, and even trained their own rabbis after first importing them from abroad. They gradually reduced their Catholic practices and eventually abandoned Church marriage and baptism.

In , they were officially recognized as Jews. Their more formal communities were situated at Bordeaux and Bayonne and there were numerous lesser settlements in such places as Toulouse, Lyons, Montpellier, La Rochelle, Nantes, and Rouen. In this last town, the Marranos had the misfortune of being expelled in , and then, after a partial return, seeing the town captured by the Spaniards in In the far-flung Spanish and Portuguese possessions, in the Aragonese territories of Sicily, Sardinia and Naples, in Hapsburg territories such as Flanders, or the colonial territories in the Far East and the Americas, the situation of the Marranos was always precarious.

Sicily and Sardinia, with Inquisitions introduced in and respectively, had no Jews living in them by the middle of the 16th century. There was opposition to introducing the Spanish Inquisition into Naples, but the papal Inquisition took over and managed to destroy most of the Marrano community by the middle of the 17th century. The situation of the Marranos was no less precarious in Antwerp , where they began to arrive early in the 16th century, often before moving to the Ottoman Empire.

With the decline of Antwerp, the center of Marrano life shifted to Amsterdam. In their colonies the Portuguese set up an Inquisition at Goa and the Spaniards established one in the Philippines. Episcopal Inquisitions were always present in Latin America: Brazil never had a formal tribunal, but tribunals were established in the Spanish colonies at Lima, Peru in , Mexico City, Mexico in , and Cartagena in Latin America attracted considerable numbers of New Christians.

The advantage of these territories was that they offered the New Christians a familiar culture and the possibility of direct � even if infrequent � contact with the mother countries.

For New Christians wishing to live fully as Catholics, the distances from the Peninsula and the sparseness of the population of most of the territories aided in the obliteration of the record of their Jewish origins.

These factors also helped permit the Marranos to practice Judaism. Religious tolerance was important in determining the direction of the flight of many of the Marranos, but also of great importance were the economic and social opportunities available in the various lands open to them at the time of their escape.

These opportunities often made it more desirable for Marranos to continue living as secret Jews in Catholic lands, even those under Spanish and Portuguese domination, than to seek a refuge where they could practice Judaism openly. Conversely, in each of the territories where the Marranos appeared, they could enter and remain because they served definite economic, social, and political ends.

In almost every one of their new homes they quickly rose to prominence in international and domestic trade, banking and finance. They helped to establish great national banks and were prominent on the stock exchanges. Marranos played an important role in large trading companies, such as the Dutch East Indies and West Indies Companies.

They worked in the traffic of such commodities as coral, sugar, tobacco, and precious stones. Great banking and trading families, such as that founded by Francisco Mendes at Lisbon , had branches throughout Europe. Marranos established manufacturing plants for soap, drugs, and other items, and made signal contributions in minting, handicrafts, armaments, and shipbuilding. In this way the activities of the New Christians fostered the stability of their countries of settlement and facilitated their transition from a medieval to a modern economy.

The Marranos also attained prominence in the professional life of the lands of their dispersion. The Marranos produced scientists such as Immanuel Bocarro Frances, distinguished physicians like Amatus Lusitanus Juan Rodrigo , Elijah Montalto Felipo Rodrigues , and Antonio Ribeiro Sanchez, and a host of other distinguished names in secular literature, theater, and music.

Reciprocally, many of the states and nations in their diaspora gave the Marranos an opportunity to develop their own institutions and culture; the printing press became an important instrument in the development of this culture. By the end of the 16th century, Venice had the leading press.

Other cities, too, like Leghorn , Hamburg , and London , had important presses, and printing in numerous smaller places helped to further spread Jewish culture.

Many Marranos also attained fame outside the Jewish fold. The aristocracy of many societies in Europe and the Americas was enriched by these people and their descendants. Frequently, as was the case with Benjamin Disraeli , they attained the highest diplomatic, military, and administrative positions. Comparable measures were not enacted in Spain until , by which time much of the distinction had been eroded by assimilation and inquisitorial repression. A Marrano community was discovered by Samuel Schwartz in Portugal in , and from time to time there emerge individuals or even groups who do not identify as Jews, but who have retained some of the practices and customs of the Marranos while unaware of their Jewish ancestry.

The most active Marranos are in the mountainous border areas of the Iberian peninsula between Spain and Portugal, in towns such as Belmonte. Jewish outreach in these areas is achieving success in bringing them forward and restoring full Judaic practice, but many still fear burning or other persecution if they go public with their practices.

Encyclopedia Judaica. Mystica Encyclopedia. Wigoder, Geoffrey. The New Standard Jewish Encyclopedia. Facts on File, New York, Download our mobile app for on-the-go access to the Jewish Virtual Library. Category � Christian-Jewish Relations. Christ and the Other Religions. Nostra Aetate. Anti-Semitism Is Not Christian. Blood Libel in Syria. Holy Child of La Guardia. The Church and the Faults of the Past.

Thereafter, there are frequent mentions of the community. Under Alfonso IV � there were complaints by the populace against the rate of interest charged by the Jews, which was henceforth limited.

In the comuna of the Jews of Braganza were given certain privileges by the Crown, confirmed in and The rabbi in was Abraham, the physician who purchased the wines produced by the royal estate adjacent to the "vineyards of the Jews. After the forced conversion in Portugal in , Braganza became one of the most important centers of crypto-Judaism in the country.

Many Crypto-Jewish families retained their special identity, continuing to practice some Jewish customs, uphold certain beliefs, and marry among themselves. For example, more than 60 appeared in a single auto held at Coimbra on May 17, Traces of crypto-Judaism are still strong there, though attempts to establish some sort of organized Jewish life have failed.

In s services were still held in a place of worship, a synagogue where children received religious instruction. Special prayers were recited and the services were led by women.