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These words, when entered into another crypto wallet in the correct order will recover all of the private keys you were storing on your original wallet.

The purpose? Giving you control. It may seem like a string of random words, but in fact the format of your recovery phrase is exactly what enables you to stay in control of your crypto. Any time a crypto wallet generates a recovery phrase, the words are selected from a list of possibilities, referred to as the BIP standard Word List � more or less all wallets, including the Ledger Nano, generate recovery phrases using words from this list.

By doing so, we ensure that you, the user, can access your crypto accounts from any other wallet � sort of like having a charger that fits any phone. So by using the BIP standard for generating your recovery phrase, Ledger and all other wallets using the same standard makes sure that you own your crypto assets, not your wallet provider.

So your recovery phrase is sort of a shorthand for all of your private keys which gives you absolute control over all of your assets, even without your wallet � but it also entails some major vulnerabilities, and these need to be factored into the way you manage it.

Unlike a private key, which corresponds to just one crypto account, the recovery phrase gives instant access to every currency in your wallet. So if it falls into the wrong hands, the potential risk to your crypto is far greater. And more importantly, unlike a private key, which is always concealed inside your wallet, the recovery phrase needs to be physically written down and managed by you.

How you do this will define your security, because it can be used by anyone, on any other wallet � so if someone else gets hold of this phrase, consider your assets gone. The whole objective of using a hardware wallet is to keep your private keys away from threats, including both online and offline vectors. So it is essential that you treat your recovery phrase with the same care.

Storing your recovery phrase on a connected device completely defeats the purpose of using a hardware wallet: just like a private key, a hack or malware deployed via your connection could simply target your phrase, and access your whole wallet.

In crypto, there is no customer service, no support team and no online database of your details. It might seem obvious, but keeping your recovery sheet in a place where it cannot be damaged by fire or water is a must � either of these things could potentially destroy your only backup.

Luckily, products like the Cryptosteel Capsule Solo and the Billfodl both enable you to record your recovery phrase on a steel back-up, making it resistant to fire, water damage and more or less all physical threats. That means your recovery phrase stays safe and secure on a medium that cannot be destroyed. Your recovery phrase is a record of all your private keys. This means that storing it in a place known only to you is a fundamental part of keeping it safe.

With your private keys safely inside your Ledger device, yet readily available to you for transactions, you will rarely use your recovery phrase. So take your time, think carefully about where to store your phrase and make sure that safety is your top priority when deciding. It may be the most important thing you do. Blockchain, a vast public network of digital storage, revolutionized our monetary system, and many other things too, by enabling users to own digital assets independently of a bank or third party.

Your private key is what links you uniquely to your blockchain address, while your seed phrase is a fingerprint of all your blockchain assets that you can use as a back-up if you lose your crypto wallet. Blockchain can be a tricky space to master, with new terms to understand and new risks to be aware of.

Hey � private keys are no joke. Here, our Chief Experience Officer Ian Rogers gives you a quick on why hardware wallets are the only way to go for securing your crypto. Editor of Ledger Academy. Writer and researcher of blockchain technology and all its use cases. Lover of old music, bikes and finding answers to questions. Read 3 min Beginner What is Infura?

Read 4 min Beginner Online world, offline keys. How Ledger protects your crypto. Announcements can be found in our blog. Press contact: [email protected]. The Classroom 1. Welcome to Web3 What is Web 3. What is Blockchain Anyway? How Many Cryptos are There? Crypto Threats: A Glossary 3.

What is Ledger? Ledger Academy Security The most convenient method is storing the seed either in your computer or smartphone, or, even handier, online. However, malware hunting for cryptocurrency wallets is not uncommon at all.

As for the online wallet services, they can be hacked and even go bankrupt, with large amounts of coins disappearing. On top of that, further problems plague wallets, including phishing, payment information spoofing, loss of wallets due to hardware failure, and so on and so forth � so much so that at some point people decided to solve the mess by making hardware cryptocurrency wallets, dedicated devices designed to store cryptographic seeds reliably and safely.

The main idea behind a hardware cryptocurrency wallet is to store the cryptographic seed in a manner that it never leaves the device. All the cryptosigning stuff is done inside the wallet, not on a computer that it is connected to.

In addition it would be nice to have some access-protection measures � like locking the device with a PIN code. And of course it would be quite useful for a hardware wallet user to be able to verify the actual transaction on the device and to either confirm or deny it. All these considerations define the most suitable design: Usually a hardware cryptocurrency wallet is a relatively small USB-connected dongle that has a display and some buttons that are used for PIN entering and transaction confirmation.

However, the inner workings of such devices can vary. The two leading manufacturers of hardware wallets � Trezor and Ledger � represent two different approaches to the hardware design. One is Secure Element , a microcontroller designed to store highly sensitive cryptographic data.

The second chip is a general purpose microcontroller that handles peripheral tasks: maintaining USB connection, controlling display and buttons, and so on. In effect, this microcontroller acts like a middleman between the Secure Element and everything else, including the user.

For example, every time the user has to confirm a transaction, they are actually going through this general purpose microcontroller, not the Secure Element chip. Researchers inspected the Ledger Nano S firmware and found that it can be re-flashed with a compromised version if a certain value is written to a certain memory address. This memory address is blocked to make it unwritable.

However, the microcontroller that is used in the device supports memory remapping, which changes the address to accessible. Researchers exploited this feature and uploaded modified firmware into the Nano S. For demonstration purposes, this modified firmware contained a Snake game.

However, this modified firmware could contain, for example, a malicious module that changes wallet addresses in all outgoing transactions. An alternative approach to compromise a hardware wallet is to use a hardware implant. Josh Datko managed to insert into a Ledger Nano S a cheap RF-triggered implant that pushes the confirmation button upon receiving a malicious radio command.

The same method probably works with any hardware wallet; the researcher chose Ledger Nano S because it is one of the smallest, and therefore the most challenging for this physical attack.

Another device by the same manufacturer, the Ledger Blue, turned out to be vulnerable to side-channel attacks. Ledger Blue is a hardware wallet with a really large display and a big battery. It has a circuit board design flaw that leaks pretty distinguishable RF signals when the user is entering a PIN code.

This chip is responsible both for cryptographic data storage and processing, and for managing the USB connection, display, buttons, and so on. However, as the researchers said, Trezor did a really good job with hardening the firmware, so researchers had to go for hardware hacking, where they found success. After that they found out that when the firmware upgrade process is started, the chip places the cryptographic seed into RAM to retain it while the flash is being overwritten.

In this manner, they managed to get all memory contents. Finding the cryptographic seed in this dump turned out to be no problem; it was stored in RAM unencrypted, in the form of a mnemonic phrase meaning actual words instead of random number that was easy to spot.

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